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Across the Spectrum, 3rd Edition

Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology

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This accessible yet comprehensive primer helps readers understand the breadth of viewpoints on major issues in evangelical theology, with chapters using the popular multiple-views format. This third edition of a well-received textbook (over 60,000 copies sold) has been updated and revised throughout. It examines positions taken by evangelical scholars on seventeen seminal issues. In addition, it offers end-of-chapter "For Further Reading" sections, an extensive glossary, and an appendix that addresses contrasting views on fifteen additional issues in contemporary evangelicalism.

1. The Inerrancy Debate
Without Error of Any Kind (The Inerrantist View)
Infallible in Matters of Faith and Practice (The Infallibilist View)
2. The Providence Debate
All Things Happen according to God's Sovereign Will (The Calvinist View)
God Limits His Control by Granting Freedom (The Arminian View)
3. The Foreknowledge Debate
God Foreknows Future Free Actions (The Classical Arminian View)
God Foreknows by Sovereignly Ordaining the Future (The Calvinist View)
God Foreknows All That Shall Be and All That May Be (The Open View)
4. The Genesis Debate
Created in the Recent Past (The Young Earth View)
A Very Old Work of Art (The Day-Age View)
Restoring a Destroyed Creation (The Restoration View)
Literary Theme over Literal Chronology (The Literary Framework View)
5. The Divine Image Debate
The Image of God Is the Soul (The Substantival View)
The Image of God Is Our God-Given Authority (The Functional View)
The Image of God Is Our Relationality (The Relational View)
6. The Christology Debate
The Unavoidable Paradox of the God-Man (The Classical View)
Christ Relinquished His Divine Prerogatives (The Kenotic View)
7. The Atonement Debate
Christ Was Punished in Our Place (The Penal Substitution View)
Christ Conquered Satan and His Kingdom (The Christus Victor View)
Christ Displayed God's Hatred of Sin (The Moral Government View)
8. The Salvation Debate
TULIP (The Calvinist View)
God Wants All to Be Saved (The Arminian View)
9. The Sanctification Debate
Sanctification as a Declaration by God (The Lutheran View)
Sanctification as Holiness in Christ and in Personal Conduct (The Reformed/Calvinist View)
Entire Sanctification as Perfect Love (The Wesleyan View)
10. The Eternal Security Debate
Secure in the Power of God (The Eternal Security View)
The Need to Persist in Faith (The Conditional Security View)
11. The Destiny of the Unevangelized Debate
No Other Name (The Restrictivist View)
God Does All He Can Do (The Universal Opportunity View)
Hope beyond the Grave (The Postmortem Opportunity View)
He Has Not Left Himself without a Witness (The Inclusivist View)
12. The Baptism Debate
Baptism and Christian Discipleship (The Believer's Baptism View)
Covenanting with the Community of God (The Infant Baptism View)
13. The Lord's Supper Debate
"This Is My Body" (The Spiritual Presence View)
"In Remembrance of Me" (The Memorial View)
14. The Charismatic Gifts Debate
The Gifts Are for Today (The Continuationist View)
"Tongues Shall Cease" (The Cessationist View)
15. The Women in Ministry Debate
Created Equal, with Complementary Roles (The Complementarian View)
The Irrelevance of Gender for Spiritual Authority (The Egalitarian View)
16. The Millennium Debate
The Return before the Reign (The Premillennial View)
Working toward and Waiting for a Coming Reign of Peace (The Postmillennial View)
The Symbolic Thousand-Year Conquest of Satan (The Amillennial View)
17. The Hell Debate
The Eternal Conscious Punishment of the Lost (The Classical View)
The Door Is Locked on the Inside (The Eternal Separation View)
The Lost Shall Be No More (The Annihilationist View)
Eventually All Will Be Saved (The Universalist View)
Appendix: Additional Issues in Evangelical Theology
Issue 1: How Should Evangelicals "Do" Theology?
Issue 2: What Is the Best Analogy for the Trinity?
Issue 3: Was Noah's Flood Global or Local?
Issue 4: Were Adam and Eve Historical Persons?
Issue 5: Are Humans Made Up of One, Two, or Three Parts?
Issue 6: What Is the Meaning of "Justification"?
Issue 7: Must Wives Submit to Their Husbands?
Issue 8: How Should Christians Approach Earthly Politics?
Issue 9: What Happens to Babies Who Die?
Issue 10: What Is the Baptism in the Holy Spirit?
Issue 11: Is Speaking in Tongues the Initial Evidence of Receiving the Baptism of the Holy Spirit?
Issue 12: Can a Christian Be Demonized?
Issue 13: How Should We Interpret the Book of Revelation?
Issue 14: Has Jesus Already Returned? The Preterist Debate
Issue 15: When Will Jesus Return? The Rapture Debate


"A collective sigh of relief will arise from the evangelical student body when it discovers this book! Across the Spectrum more than satisfies a felt need in evangelical scholarship. It helpfully and critically surveys the many legitimate evangelical theological options and convincingly demonstrates that there is no single authentically evangelical viewpoint on a wide range of controversial issues. It constitutes a small library between two covers."

Roger E. Olson, professor of theology, George W. Truett Theological Seminary, Baylor University

"I have assigned previous editions of this book in survey courses, and students have benefited from its clear, well-organized layout of major issues and arguments. With this new edition, Boyd and Eddy will continue orienting newcomers to evangelical theology, as well as fostering mutual understanding between those who hold different views."

Daniel J. Treier, Knoedler Professor of Theology, Wheaton College

"Never has a balanced text that introduces the core beliefs of evangelicals been more necessary. Across the Spectrum examines key issues in evangelical theology in an accessible manner and offers resources for further exploration across the range of contemporary evangelical thought."

Jacquelyn E. Winston, professor emerita, Azusa Pacific University

"This long-awaited update continues to provide students, pastors, and others with an outstanding survey of the diverse theological views within evangelical Christianity. The authors effectively outline arguments on a variety of theological issues in an impartial and concise way. The updated edition has successfully strengthened its previous discussions and added presentations of new evangelical views and theological topics. Across the Spectrum is an excellent read for students and church groups engaged in an introductory exploration of theology. It not only informs but also aids readers in developing their own theological convictions while maintaining a posture of charity toward those with whom they disagree."

Jonathan Grenz, dean, School of Ministry, Palm Beach Atlantic University

"This book is an essential companion for students of evangelical theology! I have found few, if any, texts that provide insights into the varied evangelical perspectives on key theological issues. Boyd and Eddy not only provide cogent arguments for each of these viewpoints, but perhaps as significant, in a polarized world dominated by vitriolic arguments and social media outrage, the authors demonstrate how the various sides of an issue can be discussed in a manner that encourages deep thought and consideration of alternative views."

Brian Yeich, affiliate professor of Methodist and Wesley theology, Asbury Theological Seminary

The Authors

  1. Gregory A. Boyd
    © Marcia Erickson

    Gregory A. Boyd

    Gregory A. Boyd (PhD, Princeton Theological Seminary), formerly professor of theology at Bethel University, is senior pastor of Woodland Hills Church in St. Paul, Minnesota, where average attendance has grown to 5,000 since he helped plant the church in 1992....

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  2. Paul R. Eddy

    Paul R. Eddy

    Paul Rhodes Eddy (PhD, Marquette University) is professor of biblical and theological studies at Bethel University in St. Paul, Minnesota. He is the author, coauthor, or editor of a number of books, including Across the Spectrum. Eddy is the...

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  3. Paul Rhodes Eddy

    Paul Rhodes Eddy

    Paul Rhodes Eddy (PhD, Marquette University) is professor of biblical and theological studies at Bethel University in St. Paul, Minnesota. He is the author, coauthor, or editor of a number of books, including Across the Spectrum. Eddy is the...

    Continue reading about Paul Rhodes Eddy